Biological conditions affecting chronic inflammation in upper airways in children


Department of Otorhinolaryngology, HUDERF, Brussels; Centre Comprendre et Parler, Brussels, Belgium


Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Clinique Notre-Dame Tournai, CHwapi, Tournai, Belgium and Service ORL, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc UCL


Department of Otorhinolaryngology, CHU Mont-Godinne UCL, Yvoir, Belgium


Department of Otorhinolaryngology, UZ Brussel VUB, Jette, Belgium


Department of Otorhinolaryngology, UZ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium


Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Clinique Sainte-Elisabeth, Namur, Belgium


Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

B-ENT 2012; 8: Supplement 41-71
Read: 657 Downloads: 430 Published: 14 February 2020

Biological conditions affecting chronic inflammation in upper airways in children. Problems/objectives: A child’s immune system cannot depend on a memory-type immune response and it also induces cytokine responses less efficiently. Biological conditions like allergy or cystic fibrosis, immune deficiency or gastrooesophageal reflux can induce and maintain background inflammation in children’s upper airways, making newborns and children more susceptible to upper airway infections and inflammations. This paper will describe in brief how allergy, cystic fibrosis, immune deficiency, nasal and paranasal anatomical variants, and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) can affect the immune and inflammatory responses in upper airways and how they could interfere with immunity development and maturation in children.

Methodology: Literature review.

Results: Chronic inflammation induced by infection, allergy, cystic fibrosis or immune deficiency is multifactorial in origin and is strongly influenced by physiological, immunological, anatomical, environmental and, above all, genetic parameters. Finally, the direct role played by nasal and paranasal anatomical variants and GOR is also discussed.

Conclusions: These conditions should be screened systematically in all children presenting chronic clinical features of upper airway inflammation.

EISSN 2684-4907